Karri-borlbme Kun-wok

kabirri-di (W) gabarri-di (Gdj)

kabirri-di (W) gabarri-di (Gdj)

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English Translation
they are standing
(Bale ka-yime karri-ngeybun?)

IPA gabiridi (W) gabaridi (Gdj)
The r in the above is a quick tap of the tongue up against the top of your mouth. Linguists would call it an alveolar tap, a bit like the 'tt' in butter when you say the word quickly ba-da. In the spelling system of both Kunwinjku and Gundjeihmi you spell this sound with a 'rr'.
Listen to the audio to hear the Kunwinjku pronunciation.


kabirri- is the prefix on verbs (and some other classes of words) that means 'they 3 or more'
gabarri- is the Gundjeihmi equivalent
The verb is -di, the verb to stand, exist, be.


About two years ago we had this same verb but with a different pronoun prefix ngahdi (nga-h-di) which means 'I am here, I am standing'. If the last sound of the pronoun prefix before the verb is both stressed and is a vowel, then the -di will change to -rri, where rr is the quick tapped sound when your tongue flicks up against the ridge behind your teeth.

nga-rri 'I'm here, I'm standing'
ka-rri 'he/she is here, he is standing, it is here'

In the past tense in Kunwinjku he/she was standing/existing the word would just be "di" without any prefix.
E.g. Boyen kumekke di dja bolkki kayakki.
Before it used to be [there] but it's not there today.

In Gundjeihmi the same thing would be ba-rri. This is a difference between Gundjeihmi and Kunwinjku. In the third person singular present tense, the prefix in Kunwinjku is ka- and the same in Gundjeihmi ga- (different spelling). But in the third person singular past tense prefix for verbs in Kunwinjku the prefix is zero i.e. you don't put anything on the verb. In Gundjeihmi however you put ba-
Boyen gumekke ba-rri dja bolkkime gayakki. (Gdj)
Before it used to be [there] but it's not there today.

In the continuous past you say -dingihdi.
Dingihdi (W) Ba-rringihdi (Gdj) 'It used to be there'. This would be something that existed in a continuous or habitual sense.

(Bale kabirri-yime?)

Kunbarlanja kabirri-di. (W)
They are living at Gunbalanya.

Yika barrk djukerre mi-ngarre kabirri-di kure ku-rralk kabirri-karung kabirri-ni. (W)
Sometimes the black wallaroos stay in the thick bush, digging in the grass and sitting there.

Yiman ga-yime bu wadjbala barri-gukbele, gabarri-di gun-guyeng gure gu-rrungbang gabarri-gurlahrung wanjh. (Gdj)
Like white skinned people, Europeans, if they stand out in the hot sun for a long time, they get sunburnt.

18 Oct 2014